VEHICLE AIR CONDITIONER COMPRESSOR OPERATING PRINCIPLE AND FAILURE
What is Air Conditioning Compressor?
The A / C compressor is the part that compresses and pressurizes the A / C gas. It takes its movement from the engine with the crank pulley and belt.
Air Conditioning Compressor Working Principle
The compressor increases the pressure of the refrigerant. The refrigerant temperature also increases. Air conditioning gas to air conditioning compressor gas enters gas exits cold enters hot exits; low pressure enters high pressure exits. If the air conditioning gas is not compressed in the compressor and the pressure is increased, the evaporator will not be able to transfer from the gaseous state to liquid and it will not be able to draw heat and make cooling. The oil dissolved in the air conditioning gas ensures that the compressor is lubricated.
The new generation of compressors used today are of variable volume-adjustable-changeable-curved plate type. Thus, the operation (compression capacity) of the air conditioner can be increased or decreased. This makes it possible to reduce fuel consumption and to make the temperature adjustment more precise. This compressor is used in automatic-digital air conditioners.
Some new generation variable volume compressors do not even have a magnetic compressor clutch, the compressor pulley rotates continuously, but since the inclined plate is brought to a completely upright position when the air conditioner is turned off, the stroke of the pistons is zero, that is, they do not draw any suction and draw no power from the engine.
The compressor absorbs the air-conditioning gas coming from the evaporator in gaseous and low pressure and compresses it with its pistons and presses it into hot steam. It is very important that the A / C gas comes to the compressor in a “gas çünkü form because the compressor can only compress the gas and liquids cannot. If it comes to the compressor in liquid form, it will break the compressor.
Car Air Conditioning Compressor Types:
- Reciprocating compressor
- Spiral compressor
- Crawler compressor
- Inclined plate compressor (latest technology)
Variable Volume (Adjustable) Air Conditioner Compressor Working Principle
The rotational movement of the compressor input shaft is converted into an axial (forward-backward) movement, ie, piston stroke, by means of the inclined plate. The compressor has between 3-10 pistons and each piston has suction and discharge valves, the valves open and close according to the suction discharge time.
The engine speed varies from 0 to 6000 RPM, which in turn changes the capacity of the A / C compressor; the air can be 30 degrees or 50 degrees, this changes the expectation from the air conditioner; the temperature the driver wants is variable 17 degrees - 25 degrees and so on. can. Variable volume (adjustable) air conditioning compressor ensures that all these variable conditions can be adapted to the air conditioning system and can provide proper cooling. The variable piston stroke is realized by changing the inclination of the inclined plate.
The inclination of the inclined plate is changed in two ways;
* With a spring-loaded Control Valve (built-in compressor); works on hydraulic principle, the angle of the inclined plate is changed by pressure effect,
* With Solenoid Control Valve (external); It is controlled by the climate control unit and changes the compressor capacity with very precise adjustment.
The operating capacity of the compressor is changed as follows;
If the ambient temperature is 27 degrees and the driver wants the temperature to be 24 degrees, then the A / C compressor will easily cool at low stroke (with a small plate tilt) and low horsepower from the vehicle. But if the ambient temperature is 45 degrees and the temperature the driver wants is 17 degrees, then the air conditioning compressor will operate at maximum stroke (maximum plate inclination), suck too much, press too much; in this case more horsepower will be drawn from the engine and the vehicle's fuel will increase. In any case, as the desired interior temperature is approached, the load of the air conditioning compressor will be reduced and saved, so that the variable volume air conditioning compressor will in all respects consume less fuel than the conventional fixed volume compressor.
The fixed volume air conditioner compressor is switched on and off periodically when the desired temperature is reached (the rotational rotation of the magnetic compressor input shaft, through the input hub and the inclined plate, into the axial (forward-reverse) movement of the pistons. When the stroke increases, the compressor power increases, and when the stroke decreases the power decreases.
Solenoid Magnetic Compressor Clutch (Magnetic Clutch Compressor)
The compressor clutch is located 1-2 mm in front of the compressor pulley in the air conditioning compressor. The compressor clutch transmits or interrupts the rotationa